GENERAL REMARKS: DAVID ORMROD — Ph.D. —  Professor at University of KentRegarding Stuart-era English wars,  Professor David Ormrod observes:I don’t think its very startling to say that political elites behave in ways that foster their own interests, including promoting wars, rather than serving the common good.———————————————————————————————————————MARK CHARLES FISSEL —  Ph.D. University of California, Berkeley — Professor at Augusta State UniversityJonathan (if I may):  Fascinating website (which I’ll doubtless bevisiting again) and a theory of warfare that strikes me as disturbinglyaccurate, though with a caveat.Looking at the Tudor-Stuart period as a whole, monarchs were culpablefor spilling blood for damned foolish reasons such as “glory” andpromotion (or survival) of their dynasty. Henry VIII may well be themost notorious (and pathetic) case. Charles I plunges his realms intocivil war primarily to bolster his royal authority. He wishes to beobeyed, and not all his subjects will fall into line (in both fiscaland religious matters).However, out of those wars comes an institutional and collective formof the decision-making process to wage war, originating in theparliamentary committee system. Representative assemblies are moreefficient (and I would argue, rational) in making the decision to go towar. It is true of the early modern period as well as our own USforeign policy. Representative assemblies are also better credit risksand thus better equipped to finance war.The causes of war, however, in my view are just as often genuinelyideological (and I include religion in that formula) as they arecynical and selfish. This is particularly true of the 16th & 17thcenturies. From the 18th century on, when economics seems to drive warrather than religion (a consequence of the Peace of Westphalia?), thenthose cynical and selfish motives are perhaps more prominent.Just some thoughts.  Your views?   If you like, we can break down theBritish Civil Wars in some detail.  Mark—————————————————————————————————————LOIS SCHWOERER — Ph.D. — Professor at George Washington University

Dr. Jonathan M. Kolkey:Herewith are my  answers to your specific questions : (1)  Yes, I think   all historians  would agree that one may detect the presence of self-interest in the decisions that lead to war….I think that the points you offer about wars in the early and mid- seventeenth century are probably correct; they are one of many considerations that led to war. I don’t think any one would disagree with you. In other words, your point is not an extraordinary one.Lois



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